Herbal V8 and VW for Sexual Stimulation

Potency Herbs for Men and Women

Our tonics to help improve your sexual health:

Herbal V8 and Herbal VW

Natural Herbs
Problems of Sexual Stimulation
Herbal Potency for Men and Women
Herbs can help to improve sexual function and control
Herbs can stimulate the blood flow to the sexual organs
Herbs for erectile dysfunction
Herbs can promote sexual longevity
Herbs can promote sexual health
For herbs for premature ejactulation see PE-Less

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Hello Alan, the herbalv8 and testos4torros are fantastic! made me feel/act like in my 20ties... in the "love-department" (i'm 46) Thank You for your great work! Stephan. Switzerland

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I found your Herbal V8 really good. I have a wife and 2 kids and I had erectile dysfunction and tried many things until I took your V8 tonic. I liked it also cos it was natural and safe. Thanks it was really good.
Adrian. Essex.

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Herbal V8 is for men.

Herbal V8 Tonic is for fast testosterone improvement. The best herbal medicine for this purpose is Herbal V8 for men. Herbal V8 Tonic is a herbal medicine that contains specialist aphrodisiac herbs that help with potency (erectile dysfunction) and sexual desire. This contains all the most important Western, African, South American and Chinese herbs to help with testosterone and also for male fertility (enhances sperm count and motility of the male sperm). Dose is 1-2tsp 1 times at night with a little water.
The herbs in this tonic work quickly via the blood stream and hormonal system. The herbal action needs to be reinforced hence you need to take this medicine every day. Results depend on many factors and you could see benefits within days. To boost your testosterone levels and to reduce it from turning into oestrogen and fat (e.g. belly fat) we recommend you exercise and lift weights daily to help avoid this and improve your potency with the action of these power herbs which give your extra vavoom a V8 action. Like Viagra, this tonic works best when you have desire for sex. Generally, you can just hope it will stimulate your emotional desires and get an erection. Once you have your partner close and start love-making, these herbs will accelerate the action where you need it. Proven by countless customers and patients. Formula by Alan Hopking, medical herbalist for over 35 years.
I also recommend the ABC Daily Herbal NutriPowder for complete nutritional back-up to your system, see below.

The herbs in Herbal V8 (the power and action is the synergy of these herbs; an upright, upbeat, hard formula to match):
Cnidium
Dodder
Suoyang
Horny Goat Weed
Eucommia
Cloves
Muira Puama
Yo bark
Damiana
Puncture Vine
Cayenne
Ginkgo
Prickly Ash
Ginger
Saw Palmetto
Catuaba
Fleece flower root
Guarana seed
Ashwagandha root
Sarsaparilla
Panax Ginseng

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Hi Mr Hopking, Just to say I've been sexually active since I was 16. I never had trouble with my little man. But now I'm in my late 60s and my little soldier didn't stand to attention as before. Both annoying and embarrassing when you have the same desires for the female charms. My age they say. The idea of viagra was a turn off to me. I came across your V8. Nasty stuff! I take it once a day. Wow, Mr! My soldier stands strong and straight as before. Every time. So satisfying! Just what my beautiful wife wants and loves! I'm not stopping this testos boost ever!
Had to tell you Alan, this is a wow product I'll recommend to every failing officer!
Thank you, sir.
P.G. USA

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Hi Alan. Starting using the Herbal V8. Good results so far. John

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Testos-4-Torros Tonic

This herbal tonic and the information provided is about increasing your testosterone levels naturally (not using drugs or steroids, or anything unnatural). To improve your potency (immediate and strong erections) you're recommended to take the HerbalV8 Tonic.

Knowing how to increase testosterone naturally is a skill that every man should possess. In this modern age, our testosterone levels are on a constant decline. Every year, more and more men are being diagnosed with low testosterone level, low sperm count and slow or weak sperm motility. Nature didn’t intend for you to inject yourself with hormones. But hormones from nature (herbs, roots, seeds, leaves, flowers, fruits) are welcomed by your body because your body wants to function as it evolved to function, to keep your partner happy and satisfied (and keep your household close and peace-loving and happy).

Are you one of 14 million?

Look at this research: men’s testosterone levels in 2013 ranged from 270 – 1070 ng/dL. 100 years ago men’s testosterone levels were recorded to be between 800-2000 ng/dL! This means that the men with “low testosterone” 100 years ago would be considered men with high testosterone now. This is an alarming statistic. And the trend is getting worse every year. It is estimated that over 14 million men currently suffer with low testosterone levels.

Are you one of 14 million men suffering with these low testos symptoms?

1) Low sex drive (not much interest in sex more than once a week or less)

2) Difficulty achieving a strong erection

3) Low semen volume

4) Hair loss or thinning

5) Fatigue & lack of energy

6) Loss of muscle

7) Increase in body fat

8) Decrease in bone mass

9) Mood changes (less enthusiasm, etc)

In order for our body to function properly so that it can create the testosterone that we need, we require a wide range of vitamins, minerals and nutrients. This is found in the 110+ herbal mixture found in the ABC Daily Herbal NutriPowder Plus, this also includes primary mushrooms to help imagination and sexual support (maitake, shiitake, chaka, lians mane, reishi, ganaderma) - is is a must-have for long-term testos strength. But certain supplements can be taken alongside the ABC powder, the most important of which are: vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin D, magnesium and zinc. You’ll be surprised to see Vit D here, derived as it is from sunlight, yet some 85% of people in America and even more in Britain are deficient. We are not getting enough sunlight due to long office hours, car journeys, trains, avoiding walking or working in the garden, plus the overuse of sunscreen.

These are the most important contributing factors causing the slump in testosterone in most young and middle age men. It is not hard to increase your testos and get your torros back.

Torros

"Torros" is more than just mojo and sexuality, it is vitality, vigor, enthusiasm, confidence, energy, prowess, joie de vivre, happiness to be alive, etc., and keeping the family as a whole happy and close. The more you make love the more you enjoy the benefits of T4T Tonic.

Herbs in T4T

Primary herbs: Tong seed, ashwagandha, ginseng, horny goat weed, yobe bark, muira puama, catuaba, forskolin, velvet bean mucuna.
Secondary herbs: fleeceflower root, suma root, mahuang leaf, ginger, cayenne, sarsaparilla, Tribulus, maca, fenugreek, ginkgo.

Another strategy, is to take T4T Tonic at a low dose daily (e.g. 1-2 teaspoons); and when you want an extra surge, revving up the V8 engine under the hood, take a large dose of Herbal V8 Tonic (e.g.1-3 tsp at night. But, it must be emphasised, sex doesn't come of itself! Foreplay and desire and imagination are crucial for successfully satisfying your partner - the herbs will be there to support your hard earned enjoyment.

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PE-Less Tonic

There are advanced herbal medicines and important world herbs specifically used for this for premature ejaculation.

The herbs selected are European and Asian and known for the benefit they have for premature ejaculation. They also act as both nervines and hormonal stabilizers. The patient may need to take this medicine for up to a month or more to observe the response these herbs give. It is normally taken as a 5ml dose twice daily. This tonic should combine with the recommended methods spoken about in this article. For most the response is gradual and therefore a top-up dose for a longer term may be indicated. But following the response which the herbs provide, the patient then usually gains confidence and greater physical control which also leads to greater support from the herbal tonic. Combining this herbal tonic with the methods I have details in this article will give the man greater confidence and lead to controlling ejaculation and strengthening the bond between partners.

Prices are as follows:
120ml £23.95
300ml £44.95
555ml £59.95
1.1L £109.95

Herbs included in the PE Tonic
NB It needs to be emphasised that single herbs can run out of puff, lose their strength after some time, due to the body getting used to it. But multiple herbs never lose their strength and action because of the complex synergy they impose on the body's hormonal system. This is borne out over centuries of herbal medicine formulations be it in Europe, Africa, India or China (and later as found in American Indian culture and Australian and Maouri knowledge by word of mouth to their local healers). The tried and tested formula is best for improved results. This goes for all Herbactive formulations.

Cistanche salsa (Broomrape fleshy stems, Rou Cong Rong): tonic to kidney yang, aphrodisiac; for impotence, spermatorrhoea, premature ejaculation.

Cuscuta chinensis (Dodder seed, Tu Si Zi): kidney deficiency, impotence, premature ejaculation, spermatorrhoea.

Elettaria cardamomum (Cardamon seeds, Grains fo Paradise, Yi Zhi Ren):  tonic to kidney yang: kidney yang deficiency: impotence, premature ejaculation.

Epimedium grandiflorum (Horny Goat Weed, yin yang huo, aerial part of the herb, root): to replenish the vital function of the kidney. Uses: Impotence, seminal emission. Pharm. Action: increases the secretion of semen, increases copulation in animals; action similar to male sex hormone; blood vessels in genitals.

Morinda officinalis (Morinda, Noni, Ba Ji Tian): the roots yield a yellow pigment used to make Noni Juice. immune deficiency; stimulates male sexual function, treats impotence, increases fertility. It increases energy, stamina, and endurance. Natural antioxident. Antidepressant. Increases endorphins - improves well-being.

Pausincort - impaired seminal vesicles, to increase reduced sperm motility. Dilates blood vessels including those in the genitalia - increased blood flow routed to the penis for better erections.

Psoralea corylifolia (Psoralea fruit, Bu Gu Zhi): reinforces the kidney yang, (vital function); impotence, premature ejaculation (specific), nocturnal emission.

Rubus coreanus (Blackberry unripe berries, Fu Pen Zi): tonic to kidneys, astringent; kidney deficiency: impotence, spermatorrhoea, premature ejaculation.

Valeriana officinalis (Valerian root): sedative, hypnotic, anti-spasmodic, hypotensive; tension, anxiety, reduces excitability which can cause premature ejaculation, cramp, colic.

Verbena officinalis (Vervain tops, Ma Bian Cao): nervine tonic, sedative; thymoleptic, depression, nerve tonic.

Viburnum opulus (Cramp bark): sedative, spasmolytic, palpitations, cramps.

Viscum album (Mistletoe leafy twigs): nervine, hypotensive, nerve relaxant, reduces heart rate (acts directly on vagus nerve, palpitation), strengthens peripheral capillary walls, reduces HBP, nervous tachycardia, hypertension.

More info about premature ejaculation:
What is PE?

 

Premature ejaculation is known to be one of a very common sexual relationship issue. The man doesn't like it and he also knows that he's letting down his partner; her enjoyment and fulfillment is cut short. The man should immediately go down on his partner so that she reaches climax.
Premature ejaculation (PE) means coming or ejaculating early or too quickly or before his partner reaches satisfaction. Young men are affected more often; older men can control it more easily. But it is a serious problem in a loving marriage or relationship. A woman doesn't feel happy with a new relationship if her new partner comes too quickly. This is because as soon as a man ejaculates he almost immediately loses interest in sex and in his partner. The classic picture is that he turns over or gets up for a smoke (and she is left fuming). Men, always make sure you completely satisfy your partner's sexual needs before you enter her for your brief action. PE can ruin a marriage if not handled properly. Don't let PE break her heart.
Every man and every couple is different in bed. Actual sexual intercourse is a matter of connecting with each other. It involves heart, mind and body. If this is done, time stands still and, long or short, penetration is of no real consequence, you're both entangled in love; it'll be heaven. But the reality is not always like that. Often there is just a physical need and this takes preparation (foreplay) and then the fulfillment. With PE problems, foreplay should be drawn out and developed so that climax when it happens is completely satisfying to her and then you. This final part can then be quick because it means the chemistry has bonded.
The trouble is both partners can become psychologically timid of even starting sex if past experiences have been unfulfilling. Every time chemistry starts the experiment fails. The penis doesn't become a bone and the woman can't give herself as she'd like to. The result is frustration and usually an argument; disengagement. This is a slippery slope with knock-on problems in the relationship (and the family). Something must be done. It needs to be approached and discussed like reasonable adults not screaming teenagers. One answer has actually already been stated above, viz a prolonged foreplay (even if at the beginning your penis is not hard) so that she is completely satisfied. Your turn will come. It may take many days or even weeks. But it is your girl that must be considered as primary before you get your wicked way. Then your relationship will be safe and good. She'll respect you and love you for respecting her first. It's an old addage, but no less true for that, that if the woman in the house is happy then the family is happy.
The next thing you need to do is to work on yourself to improve your performance so that your sexual relationship can go to a new level. This requires a strong, hard penis and an ability to have sex for 5 to 10 (or more) minutes (an average man can last about 7 minutes of hard pumping). All women with men who have PE would be more than happy for their man to pump for even 3-4 minutes. For a man who has had premature ejaculation for years this will take determined action to prevent coming after 10 seconds or even a minute. Control, withdrawal, reentry, pumping technique and trained mental "distraction" are mandatory for success. And herbs can be another important aid to delay ejaculatory failure. Failure will happen. It is inevitable with men with PE. Your woman must be supportive of your efforts (she will be if she's been totally satisfied with your pre-sex actions and her own orgasm before you even enter her, as described above). Some women want their partners to pump them for 20 or 30 minutes and if they come after 15 they are branded as having PE! This is not the strict definition of premature ejaculation. PE can affect men who just have to enter the vagina and come - they don't even start pumping. Some men can't even get into the vagina before they come. Some come at the entrance gate. Such men will need help on many levels and it starts in their mind not their manhood. More info below.
Most women don't get orgasm from the pumping action of the penis in the vagina. But all women can be satisfied with other forms of bringing them to orgasm. Penis entry can just be regarded as an extra enjoyment for her. For the man of course, it is the primary enjoyment - hence it should only come into play at the end of/after getting your princess to orgasm. The first stage of beating PE is to time yourself so that you last longer and longer. After this you can control your orgasm/ejaculation to when you want it to happen or after your girl has had her orgasm. If you are a couple trying to get pregnant and your man has a serious PE problem there's only one solution: save him for ovulation day and make sure he gets right inside you to come. He shouldn't have sex or masturbate for 7 days before your ovulation day. See our fertility page on how to find your ovulation day.

What are the causes of PE?
This is not the place for going into this subject at length. But it's worth saying that PE could be inherited. It also has links to animal behaviour - apes can come from behind the alpha-male and have a quickie with one of his females, and so sire a baby without the knowledge of the 'king'. Likewise, in early cavemen tribes. But the major cause is usually regarded as stress: emotional lack of confidence, past experiences with other partners or the present partner putting pressure on him. So, nerves are a major factor (hence the relaxant herbs in PE-Less Tonic). There is also the issue of penile over-sensitivity. I have hinted at this above. Some men are just highly sexed and cannot wait and sometimes this spills over before they have even entered the jade gate.
A huge help will be an understanding partner. Partners can agree not to have sexual intercourse, but just to enjoy each other's body and beauty. He will then gain confidence and improve his dominance and control. But he will also gain the power to abandon his strength and become vulnerable with his woman and allow her to enjoy his body. He can then succumb to her enchantments and allure. Their chemistry will become strong and they will each gain in confidence. But he must not jump in too quickly. Hold back. Keep her panting..... bring her to orgasm first..... These are methods to overcome PE and you will note that they have very little to do with the penis itself. They are techniques of distraction which build a strong mind and heart and allow your penis to maintain long, strong erections. This is what love-making is all about. She will fall for you. If your erections are weak, flaccid, or not what they used to be get our Herbal V8 Tonic.

Herbs for PE
The herbs selected are European, African, South American and Asian and known for the benefit they have for premature ejaculation. They also act as both nervines and hormonal stabilizers. The patient may need to take this medicine for up to a month or more to observe the response these herbs give. It is normally taken as a 5ml dose twice daily. This tonic should combine with the recommended methods spoken about in this article. For most the response is gradual and therefore a top-up dose for a longer term may be indicated. But following the response which the herbs provide, the patient then usually gains confidence and greater physical control which also leads to greater support from the herbal tonic. Combining this herbal tonic with the methods I have details in this article will give the man greater confidence and lead to controlling ejaculation and strengthening the bond between partners.

Other techniques to offset PE

When you feel you are coming try a simple distraction technique: eg think of a pigeon pecking on the pavement, or putting up wall paper, anything but having sex! Or you can pinch yourself (without her knowing). Or look at the candle flame in the room or the door handle or picture above the bed.
Stop pumping and withdraw halfway. Or withdraw completely for a while then re-enter. She will like this. She is ready for this and anticipates her own enjoyment as she waits.
When pumping, do not pump too deep. Only go deep once in 7 pumps. Avoid going deep into her vagina and holding yourself there because it is too magnetic and stimulating. You must control this action. Hold her, kiss her, etc but don't go deep into her. This is a primary cause of failure. Only when you know the time is right to come go deep into her so she can feel the full force of your strength. But don't hurt her.
There are gels that are available to anaesthetize the penis, but this is not the thing to use long term because it won't solve the problem. What’s more such gels can anaesthetize the vagina of your partner reducing her sexual experience, not to say they can cause itching and pain. Also not to say your own shaft's itchy reaction. To solve it is in your mind and with the PE Tonic herbs, and not on the shaft or helmet.
Another recommendation you will be given is by using a thick condom. Use this occasionally for your girl's benefit but it is not a long-term solution. The long-term solution is in your mind and how you treat your girl in bed. In this way you gain confidence and control over the eagerness of your penis.
There is the MJ Grip method which can help if you and your partner work at it to get it right. When you are nearly coming ask your girl to hold and squeeze your penis in the following way: her thumb is on one side of the erect penis, that is, the nearer side to her when she is facing him. Her index and middle fingers are on the other side. The index finger is just above the ridge of the glans (the 'head'), while the middle finger is just below the ridge. With this grip she squeezes his shaft firmly. It is painless. And you should then be able to resume and go on giving her pleasure for some time. Redo this as often as required. It can take time to get it right. It's only done when the man feels that he's near to a climax, he then withdraws, tells his partner and she quickly grips and squeezes. It is claimed to be a cure for any couple. But as I have stated throughout, the real cure of PE is in the mind, see above for details.
Also avoid drugs as the solution. They are usually antidepressants and can lead to addiction or unpleasant side-effects.
Your tackle is important and should not be subjected to other kinds of unorthodox/unproven methods eg using bands, creams, or tablets, etc. They could damage your genitals and affect your sperm count and motility.
Finally, masturbation. This can help some. Train yourself by almost reaching climax and stop, then again, and again (3 times), then on the 4th time he ejaculates. This method is conducted the morning before a night encounter for example so that ejaculation is more difficult, and pumping can be longer. Again, I don't recommend this as a cure, because PE cure is in the mind and in relation with your partner, as described above.
Article is copyright by Alan Hopking MA MNIMH

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Herbal VW is for women.
We are trying to rival Viagra(TM) with traditional and researched herbal medicines for sexual health for women and men. it's a common condition and it's normal to want to improve your feelings and performance for yourself and your partner. What's more herbs are often bought not because of sexual shortfall but for promoting what is there already.
Men: Herbs for potency, hardness, sexual longevity, premature ejaculation (if PE is a chronic problem see our specific tonic for this condition), fertility (be careful). Also try Testos4Torros Tonic for long-term improvement of flagging testosterone levels. NB Herbactive only uses herbs from nature - nothing else is added. Your imagination must be stirred into your dose to get the best action from these unique formulations.
Women: Herbal VW. Herbs for women's sexuality, sexual desire, sexual enjoyment, sexual confidence, and fertility (be careful).
Specific herbs are beneficial to genital and reproductive health.

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Hi Alan, I'm very happy to report back that your Herbal V8 works superbly; it makes my penis hard as I've not had for a very long time. What's more, the erection lasts a long time.
There's nothing worse (and especially for my partner) that having the desire and urge to make love and have a penis unable to respond. Your Herbal V8 has rejuvenated our relationship. Thank you for this excellent tonic. Mark

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'Dear Mr Hopking, Many, many thanks for recommending Herbal V8, it has enhanced my life as I feel far more energetic when taking it - a superb tonic that really does reach the parts other supplements don't...!
P.S. The wife's impressed as well!'
JP (Wessex, England)

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This tonic has made a man out of me again! Thanks Alan it's restored my love life and I'd recommend it to anyone having problems with potency. Please send me another large bottle.
Andy S.

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Your Herbal V8 is brilliant, plus it gives me a real boost right through the day! It gives me a satisfied smile! Thank you.
TG

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Hi Alan, I'm 65 and I know hormones show signs of decline at my age. Now, I hadn't 'lost it' but I wasn't the man I used to be. I didn't feel I needed to go the way of Viagra. So I decided to try your V8. I kept to a low dose at night. The effects took a little time to build up. I first realised things were improving when night-time erections kept waking me up. My erections became stronger and lasted longer. Quite honestly I feel 18 again!! Very satisfying for my wife and me. My confidence has been given a huge boost. I can't praise this formula enough. Thank you.
Robert, London.

Herbal VW (for women):

Many women enquire about testosterone at menopause as they believe it will help their sex drive and libido but this is best done with progesterone and achieving hormone balance. Progesterone is the natural precursor for testosterone in the body in menopausal women and has been used by men to help with prostate problems. However testosterone supplements should only ever be taken under the direct supervision on a medical doctor to their potential side effects in women.

"Dear Sir, I found myself aged 50 and in the menopause. Of all the symptoms of the menopause, the one I found most difficult to come to terms with was loss of libido. For some reason a diminished libido I found very emotionally distressing.
I therefore began to look for a stimulant that would help alleviate this. I tried something similar to Herbal VW a few years ago, but it was difficult to get hold of and the bottles were very small. Therefore, I was looking to find something more readily available and Herbal VW fits the bill. I have also taken your herbal HRT (FlushLess Tonic) and Herbal VW together.
But now just Herbal VW suits me because it provides the sexual stimulation that I found diminished. It doesn't have any side effects, works within a couple of hours, is made from natural products and is readily available by mail order. It has also given me back a sense of emotional well-being. I have no hesitation in recommending it and have done so to similar aged people."
Jenifer

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Hormonal Herbal Tonics for Men
1. Herbal V8 - for mature men with problems of potency and for ED (erectile dysfunction): Find it in our store - See how you can boost your testosterone with foods here

2. ProTest Tonic - this is a specific formula for men to balance the progesterone action and testosterone to improve the waistline and the male hormones during male changes in middle age. Find it in our store

3. Testos4Torros Tonic - this is a specific strong testosterone stimulating herbal tonic for men of all ages. Find it in our store - See how you can boost your testosterone with foods here

Hormonal Herbal Tonics for Women
1. Herbal VW for Women - This is a sexual stimulant for women containing the following herbs: Pasque flower, Sable Berry, Black Haw, Chaste Tree fruit, Rehmannia fruit, Cinnamon seed, Epimedium, Dong Gui, Turnera, Cnidium, Liriosma. Find it in our store

2. Progestereronal Tonic - for women with problem hormones with low progesterone. We also have wild yam cream to help. Find it in our store

3. FlushLess Tonic - this tonic is for women with menopausal sweats and other issues at this age (e.g. dry skin, etc). Find it in our store

To order these tonics go to our store

Find out about herbal medicine for treatment of this condition

Related tonics:
Testosterone
Cancida Tonic for thrush and candida
Sex-drive for women
Progestereronal Tonic - for women with problem hormones with low progesterone (oestrogen dominance). We also have wild yam cream to help.
PE-Less for premature ejaculation
Fertility Tonics for women and men
WorryLess Tonic for stress, anxiety and worry
ProstateLess Tonic for prostatic symptoms
NerveShield for neurological conditions
TireLess for ME and fibromyalgia
MouthShield - a mouthwash for bad breath and gum disease
WindLess for flatulence and bad wind
SkinClear for eczema and skin disease
SpotLess for acne and teenage spots
BodyBuild Powder to enhance muscles during training
MuscleMore - to strengthen and tone the muscles
Horny Goat Weed
Damiana - for mood enhancement and more

Email - Find out about herbal medicine for treatment of these conditions

To order these tonics go to our store

Below is the latest information about Yohimbe from the American Botanical Council.
For information only - this herb is not available to the public from Herbactive

Yohimbe bark

Latin Name: Pausinystalia yohimbe
Pharmacopeial Name: Yohimbehe cortex
Other Names: johimbe, yehimbe

Overview
Yohimbe is a tall evergreen forest tree, reaching a height of 90 feet and width of 40 feet, native to southwestern Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, and the Congo. The material of commerce is collected in the wild in this same region (Bown, 1995; Keay, 1989; Leung and Foster, 1996; Reichert, 1997).
Yohimbe bark has traditionally been used in western Africa as a sexual aphrodisiac, especially in male erectile disorders, reportedly stimulating both erection and salivation. Medicinal use of yohimbe bark reached Europe in the 1890s. The majority of pharmacological data is on one of its isolated constituents, the indole alkaloid yohimbine, rather than on whole bark preparations (Bown, 1995; Duke, 1997; Grasing et al., 1996; Leung and Foster, 1996). Yohimbine is also found in related trees (Pausinystalia macroceras and P. tillesii) as well as in Indian snakeroot (Rauwolfia serpentina (L.) Benth) and quebracho (Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco). In Africa, P. lane-poolei (pamprana, igbepo) is also used therapeutically. A dressing of the ground bark is applied topically to yaws (an infectious tropical skin disease) and itching skin (Bown, 1995; Budavari, 1996; Duke, 1997).
In Germany, yohimbe bark is the subject of a negative (unapproved) monograph in the Commission E due to lack of data and safety concerns.In the United States, yohimbe bark is widely used in numerous aphrodisiac, athletic performance (as an alternative to anabolic steroids) and male sexual performance dietary supplements. The most commonly prescribed drug for functional impotence is yohimbine hydrochloride (e.g., Afrodex, Aphrodyne, Yocon, Yohimex, Yohydrol), which is often combined with other drugs, including strychnine, thyroid, and methyltestosterone (Leung and Foster, 1996; Tyler, 1993). The Merck Index reports its therapeutic category as an a-adrenergic blocker and mydriatic (causing pupillary dilatation), its use as a pharmacological probe for the study of a2-adrenoceptor, and its uses in veterinary medicine as an aphrodisiac and as an adrenergic blocking agent (Budavari, 1996).
No significant human studies on crude yohimbe bark or its whole extract have been conducted.Numerous studies, however, have investigated the actions of the isolated constituent yohimbine; for example, some pharmacokinetic studies have been performed in humans (Grasing et al., 1996; Owen et al., 1987) and human clinical studies have investigated its use for erectile dysfunction or male impotence (Morales et al., 1987; Reid et al., 1987; Riley, 1994). One study indicated that lower doses of yohimbine, given to patients who are fasting or eating a low-fat diet, may be more effective (Grasing et al., 1996).
There are a few studies showing that yohimbine is effective for some impotence, especially of vascular, diabetic, or psychogenic origins. It can improve the quality and staying power of erections, usually without increasing sexual excitement. The Commission E noted side effects, however, including dizziness, nervousness, and anxiety. To determine its therapeutic efficacy and evaluate the safety of yohimbine in regard to its specific use for erectile dysfunction, a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials was conducted (Ernst and Pittler, 1998). The authors found seven trials that fit the predefined inclusion criteria. Overall methodological quality of those studies was satisfactory. The meta-analysis demonstrated that yohimbine is superior to placebo in treating erectile dysfunction. Serious adverse reactions were infrequent and reversible. The authors concluded that the benefits seem to outweigh the risks. Therefore, yohimbine is considered to be a reasonable therapeutic option for erectile dysfunction (Ernst and Pittler, 1998). This conclusion is based not on the bark but on the isolated constituent yohimbine, which is available as a drug. A review of yohimbine and related yohimbe alkaloids details potential adverse effects and drug interactions (De Smet, 1997).
Though yohimbe bark is freely available in the United States in health and natural food stores, pharmacies, and by mail order, it should be used with caution. It is not recommended for excessive or long-term use and may potentiate pharmaceutical MAO-inhibitors. Its pharmaceutical derivative, yohimbine, can significantly increase blood pressure at oral doses of only 1520 mg (12 mg can induce a hypertensive crisis in patients taking tricyclic antidepressants), produce unpleasant digestive and central nervous system symptoms, and may potentiate hypotensive drugs. A dose as low as 10 mg can induce mania in patients with bipolar depression (Bruneton, 1995; De Smet and Smeets, 1994; Grasing et al., 1996; McGuffin et al., 1997; Osol and Farrar, 1955; Reichert, 1997; Roth et al., 1984). An analysis of commercial yohimbe products sold in the United States revealed that few products were found with any appreciable levels of yohimbine, raising concerns about the quality control of some of these products (Betz et al., 1995).

Description
Yohimbe bark consists of the dried bark of the trunk and branches of Pausinystalia yohimbe (K. Schumann) Pierre ex Beille [syn. Corynanthe yohimbi Schumann] [Fam. Rubiaceae] and its preparations. The bark contains alkaloids. The main alkaloid is yohimbine.

Chemistry and Pharmacology
Yohimbe contains up to 6% indole alkaloids, 1015% of which are yohimbine (quebrachine); also a-yohimbine (isoyohimbine), allo-yohimbine (dihydroyohimbine), yohimbinine, a-yohimbane, yohimbenine, corynantheine, and others (Betz et al., 1995; Budavari, 1996; Leung and Foster, 1996).
The Commission E did not report pharmacological actions.

Uses
The Commission E reported its unofficial use for sexual disorders, as an aphrodisiac, and for feebleness and exhaustion. The effectiveness of this herb and its preparations for the claimed applications is not sufficiently documented in the scientific literature, and thus the Commission E categorized it as an unapproved herb.
The Commission E did not find adequate documentation to support this use. The Evaluation section of the original monograph states, 'The therapeutic administration of yohimbe bark and its preparations is not recommended because of insufficient proof of efficacy and the unforeseeable correlation between risk and benefit.'

Contraindications
In existing liver and kidney diseases and in chronic inflammation of the sexual organs or prostate gland (McGuffin et al., 1997; Reynolds, 1989; Roth et al., 1984).

Side Effects
Therapeutic administration of yohimbine can cause nervous excitation, tremor, sleeplessness, anxiety, increased blood pressure, tachycardia, nausea, and vomiting. In case of existing liver and kidney diseases, yohimbe preparations should not be used. Interactions with psychopharmacological herbs have been reported.

Use During Pregnancy and Lactation
No data available.

Interactions with Other Drugs
May potentiate pharmaceutical MAO-inhibitors and, in high doses, potentiate hypotensive drugs (McGuffin et al., 1997).

Dosage and Administration
Evaluation: The therapeutic administration of yohimbe bark and its preparations is not recommended because of insufficient proof of efficacy and the unforeseeable correlation between risk and benefit (Commission E).

Yohimbine Hydrochloride: 5.4 mg, three times daily (Rice et al., 1996); 6 mg., three times daily (Morales et al., 1987; Reid et al., 1987; Reynolds, 1989; Werbach and Murray, 1994); 15-20 mg per day though higher doses up to 42 mg per day may be more effective (Werbach and Murray, 1994). Other sources state that yohimbine may be more effective at lower doses and that there are significant risks associated with doses over 10 mg (Devi, 1998; Reichert, 1997; Riley, 1994).

References
Betz, J.M., K.D. White, A. Der Marderosian. 1995. Gas chromatographic determination of yohimbine in commercial yohimbe products. J AOAC Int 78(5):11891194.

Bown, D. 1995. Encyclopedia of Herbs and Their Uses. New York: DK Publishing, Inc. 322.

Bruneton, J. 1995. Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Medicinal Plants. Paris: Lavoisier Publishing.

Budavari, S. (ed.). 1996. The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals, 12th ed. Whitehouse Station, N.J.: Merck & Co, Inc.

De Smet, P.A. 1997. Yohimbe AlkaloidsGeneral Discussion. In: De Smet, P.A., K. Keller, Hnsel R., Chandler, R.F. (eds.) 1997. Adverse Effects of Herbal Drugs, Vol. 3. New York: Springer Verlag. 181205.

De Smet, P.A. and O.S. Smeets. 1994. Potential risks of health food products containing yohimbe extracts [letter]. BMJ 309(6959):958.

Devi, L. 1998. YohimbineClinical Study Shows Effects at Different Dose Levels. HerbClip 060481. Austin, TX: American Botanical Council.

Duke, J.A. 1997. The Green Pharmacy. Emmaus, PA: Rodale Press. 176, 188, 191192, 288.

Ernst, E. and M.H. Pittler. 1998. Yohimbine for erectile dysfunction: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. J Urol 159(2):433436.

Grasing, K. et al. 1996. Effects of yohimbine on autonomic measures are determined by individual values for area under the concentration-time curve. J Clin Pharmacol 36(9):814822.

Keay, R.W. 1989. Trees of Nigeria. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Leung, A.Y. and S. Foster. 1996. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, 2nd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

McGuffin, M., C. Hobbs, R. Upton, A. Goldberg. 1997. American Herbal Product Association's Botanical Safety Handbook. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Morales, A. et al. 1987. Is yohimbine effective in the treatment of organic impotence? Results of a controlled trial. J Urol 137(6):11681172.

Osol, A. and G.E. Farrar. 1955. The Dispensatory of the United States of America, 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: J.B. Lippincott Company.

Owen, J.A. et al. 1987. The pharmacokinetics of yohimbine in man. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 32(6):577582.

Reichert, R. 1997. Yohimbine Pharmacokinetics. Quarterly Rev Nat Med Spring:1718.

Reid, K. et al. 1987. Double-blind trial of yohimbine in treatment of psychogenic impotence. Lancet 2(8556):421423.

Reynolds, J.E.F. (ed.). 1989. Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed. London: The Pharmaceutical Press.

Rice, T.F. et al. 1996. Physicians' Desk Reference, 50th ed. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company. 1283, 1322, 1363, 1892, 2552.

Riley, A.J. 1994. Yohimbine in the treatment of erectile disorder. Br J Clin Pract 48(3):133136.

Roth, L. et al. 1984. Giftpflanzen, Pflanzengifte. Munich: Ecomed.

Tyler, V.E. 1993. The Honest Herbal, 3rd ed. Binghamton, N.Y.: Pharmaceutical Products Press. 327329.

Werbach, M.R. and M.T. Murray. 1994. Botanical Influences on IllnessA Sourcebook of Clinical Research. Tarzana, CA: Third Line Press. 199202.
Additional Resources

Clark, J.T. 1991. Suppression of copulatory behavior in the male rats following central administration of clonidine. Neuropharmacology (U.K.) 30(4):373382.

Clark, J.T., E.R. Smith, J.M. Davidson. 1985. Testosterone is not required for the enhancement of sexual motivation by yohimbe. Physiological Behav 35(4):517521.

. 1985. Evidence for the modulation of sexual behavior by alpha-adrenoceptors in male rats. Neuroendocrinology (Switz) 41(1):3643.

Davis, G.A. and R. Kohl. 1977. The influence of alpha receptors on lordosis in the female rat. Pharm Biochem Behav 6(1):4753.

Smith, E.R. and J.M. Davidson. 1990. Yohimbine attenuates aging-induced sexual deficiencies in male rats. Physiol Behav 47(4):631634.

Smith, E.R., R.L. Lee, S.L. Schnur, J.M. Davidson. 1987. Alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonists and male sexual behavior: 1. Mating Behavior. Physiol Behav 41(1):714.

. 1987. Alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonists and male sexual behavior: 2. Erectile and ejaculatory reflexes. Physiol Behav 41(1):1519.

Taber, C.W. 1962. Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary, 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis Company. M59.

This material was adapted from The Complete German Commission E MonographsTherapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. M. Blumenthal, W.R. Busse, A. Goldberg, J. Gruenwald, T. Hall, C.W. Riggins, R.S. Rister (eds.) S. Klein and R.S. Rister (trans.). 1998. Austin: American Botanical Council; Boston: Integrative Medicine Communications.

1) The Overview section is new information.

2) Description, Chemistry and Pharmacology, Uses, Contraindications, Side Effects, Interactions with Other Drugs, and Dosage sections have been drawn from the original work. Additional information has been added in some or all of these sections, as noted with references.

3) The dosage for equivalent preparations (tea infusion, fluidextract, and tincture) have been provided based on the following example:

* Unless otherwise prescribed: 2 g per day of [powdered, crushed, cut or whole] [plant part]
* Infusion: 2 g in 150 ml of water
* Fluidextract 1:1 (g/ml): 2 ml
* Tincture 1:5 (g/ml): 10 ml

4) The References and Additional Resources sections are new sections. Additional Resources are not cited in the monograph but are included for research purposes.

This monograph, published by the Commission E in 1994, was modified based on new scientific research. It contains more extensive pharmacological and therapeutic information taken directly from the Commission E.

Excerpt from Herbal Medicine: Expanded Commission E Monographs
Copyright 2000 American Botanical Council
Published by Integrative Medicine Communications
Available from the American Botanical Council.

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Prescriptions

Our herbal tonic medicines are carefully prepared on a personal and individual basis for your healing by medical herbalist Alan Hopking MA MNIMH FINEH.

Only whole herbs are used in our herbal medicines. Nothing else is added. If you have symptoms which you consider might be helped with herbal medicine please contact herbal practitioner Alan Hopking for a friendly confidential professional consultation. See terms and fees.

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HERBACTIVE Centre of Herbal Medicine, England, UK. Freephone 0800 0834436

General advice to consumers on the use of herbal remedies from the Medicines Healthcare products Regulatory Agency

From the website of the Medicines Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (www.mhra.gov.uk) Department of Health, UK

• Remember that herbal remedies are medicines. As with any other medicine they are likely to have an effect on the body and should be used with care. • Herbal remedies may sometimes interact with other medicines. This makes it particularly important to tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are taking a herbal remedy with other medicines such as prescribed medicines (those provided through your doctor or dentist). • Treat with caution any suggestion that a herbal remedy is '100% safe' or is 'safe because it is natural'. Many plants, trees, fungi and algae can be poisonous to humans. It is worth remembering that many pharmaceuticals have been developed or derived from these sources because of the powerful compounds they contain. Any medicine, including herbal remedies, which have an effect on the body should be used with care. • Treat with caution any herbalist or other person who supplies herbal remedies if they are unwilling or unable to provide written information, in English, listing the ingredients of the herbal remedy they are providing. • If you are due to have a surgical operation you should always remember to tell your doctor about any herbal remedy that you are taking. • Anyone who has previously experienced any liver complaint, or any other serious health complaint is advised not to take any herbal remedy without speaking to their doctor first.

PRECAUTIONS:

Pregnant/Breast-feeding mothers

Few conventional medicines have been established as safe to take during pregnancy and it is generally recognised that no medicine should be taken unless the benefit to the mother outweighs any possible risk to the foetus. This rule should also be applied to herbal medicinal products. However, herbal products are often promoted to the public as being “natural” and completely “safe” alternatives to conventional medicines. Some herbal ingredients that specifically should be avoided or used with caution during pregnancy. As with conventional medicines, no herbal products should be taken during pregnancy unless the benefit outweighs the potential risk.

Volatile Oils

Many herbs are traditionally reputed to be abortifacient and for some this reputation can be attributed to their volatile oil component.(6) A number of volatile oils are irritant to the genito-urinary tract if ingested and may induce uterine contractions. Herbs that contain irritant volatile oils include ground ivy, juniper, parsley, pennyroyal, sage, tansy and yarrow. Some of these oils contain the terpenoid constituent, thujone, which is known to be abortifacient. Pennyroyal oil also contains the hepatotoxic terpenoid constituent, pulegone. A case of liver failure in a woman who ingested pennyroyal oil as an abortifacient has been documented.

Uteroactivity

A stimulant or spasmolytic action on uterine muscle has been documented for some herbal ingredients including blue cohosh, burdock, fenugreek, golden seal, hawthorn, jamaica dogwood, motherwort, nettle, raspberry, and vervain. Herbal Teas Increased awareness of the harmful effects associated with excessive tea and coffee consumption has prompted many individuals to switch to herbal teas. Whilst some herbal teas may offer pleasant alternatives to tea and coffee, some contain pharmacologically active herbal ingredients, which may have unpredictable effects depending on the quantity of tea consumed and strength of the brew. Some herbal teas contain laxative herbal ingredients such as senna, frangula, and cascara. In general stimulant laxative preparations are not recommended during pregnancy and the use of unstandardised laxative preparations is particularly unsuitable. A case of hepatotoxicity in a newborn baby has been documented in which the mother consumed a herbal tea during pregnancy as an expectorant. Following analysis the herbal tea was reported to contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids which are known to be hepatotoxic.

Breast-feeding mothers

A drug substance taken by a breast-feeding mother presents a hazard if it is transferred to the breast milk in pharmacologically or toxicologically significant amounts. Limited information is available regarding the safety of conventional medicines taken during breast-feeding. Much less information exists for herbal ingredients, and generally the use of herbal remedies is not recommended during lactation.

Paediatric Use

Herbal remedies have traditionally been used to treat both adults and children. Herbal remedies may offer a milder alternative to some conventional medicines, although the suitability of a herbal remedy needs to be considered with respect to quality, safety and efficacy. Herbal remedies should be used with caution in children and medical advice should be sought if in doubt. Chamomile is a popular remedy used to treat teething pains in babies. However, chamomile is known to contain allergenic sesquiterpene lactones and should therefore be used with caution. The administration of herbal teas to children needs to be considered carefully and professional advice may be needed.

Perioperative use

The need for patients to discontinue herbal medicinal products prior to surgery has recently been proposed. The authors considered eight commonly used herbal medicinal products (echinacea, ephedra, garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, kava, St John’s Wort, valerian). On the evidence available they concluded that the potential existed for direct pharmacological effects, pharmacodynamic interactions and pharmacokinetic interactions. The need for physicians to have a clear understanding of the herbal medicinal products being used by patients and to take a detailed history was highlighted. The American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) has advised patients to tell their doctor if they are taking herbal products before surgery and has reported that a number of anaesthesiologists have reported significant changes in heart rate or blood pressure in some patients who have been taking herbal medicinal products including St John’s Wort, ginkgo and ginseng. MCA is currently investigating a serious adverse reaction associated with the use of ginkgo prior to surgery. In this case, the patient who was undergoing hip replacement experienced uncontrolled bleeding thought to be related to the use of ginkgo.

From the website of the Medicines Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (www.mhra.gov.uk) Department of Health, UK

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